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[2005第二期]石屋与普愚:中朝古代两个大和尚


www.zjol.com.cn  2005年07月28日  浙江在线新闻网站

   元至正七年(1347年)七月初,46岁的高丽国普愚太古禅师匆匆离开住了一年多的大都燕京(今北京)大观寺,一路跋涉到达了今浙江北部湖州的霞雾山,拜访中国临济宗十八代禅师石屋清珙(1272-1352年)。太古禅师求法15天后于八月初一离开,带走了“蒙授正印,传衣法信”的袈裟禅杖,揭开了中国与朝鲜半岛文化交流的新一页,当时的燕京诸山长老曾向朝廷上疏,对普愚评价极高:“普愚寻往南方湖州霞雾山谒石屋和尚。石屋半月谈,太古放身卸担,两行书两家影,为血脉之连枝;一条杖一领衣,但法印之标信。奚一世之罕遇,实万劫之难逢。雪庵风及庵寒,天湖月太古色。上国皇天之德望于斯益高;本朝人寰之喜心……”

   普愚次年回国后成为高丽国第一代临济宗祖师,此后高丽又有3批约60位法门弟子到霞雾山参拜了他们的祖庭。

   霞雾山今名霞幕山,距湖州西南约25公里,海拔408米。据明崇祯时县志载:“由高径崎岖上登可见太湖,群山皆在下,每有云霞复幕,故名。”生于宋咸淳八年的石屋禅师原籍江苏常熟,俗姓温。幼学佛,后随福建建阳及庵禅师,约40岁到霞幕山顶一处叫天湖的水塘边结庐取名天湖庵,一心修禅事佛。19年后美名远播,被当湖 (今嘉兴市平湖县)新建福源寺请去住持7年,后又至杭州灵隐寺小住,旋回天湖。其间他被赐予金袈裟并与普陀、五台、天台、武林诸僧俗相往来。普愚到来时他已 75岁,山樵蔬莳完全自力,至正十二年秋圆寂,享年81岁,被谥“佛慈慧照禅师”。留有门人整理的《石屋清珙禅师语录》11000字1卷,自己写的《山居诗》14000 余言。普愚则在高丽国奉为国师,公元1383年圆寂,享年82岁,诏谥“圆证”。在为他建的3处塔铭中均有“游学中国,嗣湖州霞雾山临济十八代孙石屋清珙禅师之法,则师于临济为十九代之孙”之类的铭文。

  霞幕山主峰突兀高耸,山林葱郁。如今因久无人居住,天湖庵遗址只剩下断碑数方,天湖水塘边有文字记载的石屋舍利及纪念塔等早已荡然无存,但尚有建于乾隆四十九年(1784年)的灵塔3处,其中一塔刻有“古天湖上余家万代总冢之塔”,这说明500多年来霞幕山临济宗门代有传人,从塔铭上看,其中也可能为朝鲜弟子所建。按石屋《山居诗》所描写的天湖庵,那是方不逾丈的“团团一个尖头屋”,“蜗涎素壁粘枯壳,虎过新蹄印雨泥。”他们当时的生活情景是:“黄土坡边多蕨笋,青苔地上少尘沙”,“漏笊篱捞无米饭,破砂盆捣烂生姜”。

   普愚告别后,石屋曾在当年底写信给他:“长老不惮万里崎岖求决已事,来余峰顶,此时相见老僧无一法可说,长老无一字可闻,是真相见。长老当自保养,转示将来,免堕邪见。”次年杭州净慈寺派专人送来普愚的复信“弟子高丽国重兴禅寺普愚,九拜谨启本师霞雾山石屋大和尚座下……”他在信中报告回国及弘传宗法的决心。石屋又写一信告诫他“出世为人,要以本分事激引来蒙,慎勿以机境上递相狐媚,大家草里辊斯何图哉……”署名是“霞峰石屋”。这不仅反映了中国与朝鲜半岛的文化交流以及石屋、普愚师徒间的互尊互敬,也反映了当时浙江与高丽国之间邮路通畅。相传,石屋亲手在霞幕山种了15株茶树,今韩国称为“霞雾茶”,弥足珍贵。

By Kou Dan, Zhu Min In early

        July of 1347, the 46-year-old Korean Buddhist monk Puyu Taigu left the Daguan Temple in Dadu (today's Beijing), capital of the Yuan Dynasty(1271-1368).

        He trekked all the way to Xiawu Mountain in the northern Huzhou, Zhejiang province, for a visit to the 18th-generation Buddhist master of the Linji Sect. The master was Shiwu Qinggong (1272-1352). Taigu did an intensive study of Buddhism for 15 days under the direction of the master.

        The Korean monk then went back home with a new insight into Buddhism. He also carried home a cassock and Buddhist cane from Shiwu Qinggong, important articles that served to prove his legitimate status as a disciple of Shiwu Qinggong.

        The Korean monk's visit turned a new page in the cultural dialogue between China and the Korean Peninsula. Puyu Taigu returned to his home country in 1348 and became the first master of the Linji Sect in Korea. Later about 60 disciples from the Korean sect pilgrimaged in three batches to Xiawu Mountain for a visit to their religious roots.

        Today, the 406-meter-high Xiawu Mountain is called Xiamu Mountain, about 25 kilometers northwest of downtown Huzhou. The local county annals compiled in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) registered why the mount changed to the new name: "A zigzagging path leads to the mount top. From there one can enjoy a panoramic view of the great Taihu Lake and adjacent peaks. Curtain-like clouds often appear there."

        Master Shiwu began studying Buddhism in his childhood. He became a monk in a Buddhist temple in Fujian Province. At about age 40, he came to Xiawu Mountain, where he built a cottage by a pond called Sky Lake on the mount top and it was named the Sky Lake Temple. He began to cultivate himself according to Buddhist doctrines. Nineteen years later his reputation as a Buddhist master spread far. He served as abbot in a nearby temple for 7 years. Later he went to stay in the Lingying Temple in Hangzhou for a while before he returned to the Sky Lake Temple. He was blessed with a gold-color cassock and often mixed himself with monks from Putuo, Wutai, Tiantai, and Wulin temples.

        When the Korean monk Puyu came to visit him, Shiwu was already 75. He chopped wood and grew vegetables in a garden to support himself as a monk. His disciples recorded his remarks and compiled a quotation book of 11,000 words. He also wrote poems of about 14,000 words which described his life in the mount.

        Puyu was regarded as Buddhist master in Korea. He died in 1383 at 82. Three pagodas were built in his memory. On them were inscriptions that the monk had inherited Buddhist teachings from Master Shiwu Qinggong, the 18th-generation master of the Linji Sect and that therefore Shiwu was the 19th-generation master.

        Today, the highest peak of the mountain is thickly covered by trees. In the place where the Sky Lake Temple used to stand, there are only a few broken steles. The stone house and the pagoda are nowhere to be seen today.

        Shiwu wrote to Puyu at the end of 1347. In 1348, The Jingci Temple in Hangzhou sent a special messenger to deliver a letter to Shiwu from Puyu. Shiwu wrote back. The correspondences not only show the mutual respect they had for each other and the cultural exchanges between China and Korea but also served as a testimony to the open postal service system between China and Korea during that time. (Translated by David)

图说文字:

清乾隆四十九年所建灵塔之一 This memorial pagoda was built in 1784, the 49th year of Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.

韩国出版《石屋清珙禅师语录》封面 The cover of a book of Buddhist Master Shiwu Qinggong's quotations published in Korea

清乾隆四十九年所建灵塔之二 This memorial pagoda was also built in 1784, the 49th year of Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.

来源: 浙江在线  作者: 寇 丹 朱 敏

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